Usually people who resist distancing are the ones who need to learn to become more self-contained, and those who crave distance would benefit from learning to balance their need for connection with independence.
When too much connection is harmful and distancing is beneficial
In general, people who are needy and eager to pursue connection may have one or more of the following characteristics:
• they need a lot of attention, approval, or validation,
• they express their thoughts and opinions without discretion, either complaining too much or making perpetual observations even if tedious or uninteresting,
• they are afraid to do things alone—e.g., to see friends or family, pursue interests and hobbies, etc., or
• they don’t have control over their emotions, and tend to express too many negative emotions to their partner.
When people focus too much on getting their needs met by another person, the relationship becomes fused, boundaries dissolve, and anxiety becomes increasingly infectious. The assumption of people who tend to fuse emotionally is that others are responsible for their own well-being. Such expectations increase pressure, anxiety, and disappointment, because people ultimately cannot provide well-being to another person without diminishing that person’s selfhood and independence.
When two people focus on getting their own needs met and become more independent, their relationship tends to flourish and become more reciprocal.
When is distancing harmful
If you feel hurt, angry, or resentful toward your partner, you might need a little time to calm down (to withdraw or seek distance) to figure out if you need to talk to your partner, let the situation slide, or take some sort of action. Hopefully, you will only need a few minutes to sort it out. In more serious situations you may need more time, or you may even need to talk to someone outside the relationship to get help.
Make sure, however, to avoid distancing when it is motivated by a desire to punish, to manipulate, or to avoid conflict.
• Distancing to punish
Beware of using distancing in a punitive way. If you withdraw to punish your partner, you will only further exacerbate the negative relationship dynamic. Your aim should be to understand and respect each other, not to hurt each other.
• Distancing to manipulate
Beware of distancing as a means to manipulate your partner. Causing your partner to fear abandonment may get your partner’s attention, but it will damage the relationship in the long run. Controlling someone through their emotions creates resentment and prevents open, honest communication.
• Distancing to avoid conflict
If your fear of your partner’s reactions causes you to become distant, you deny yourself the opportunity to develop true intimacy, which requires honesty, trust, and openness. Don’t shy away from expressing your feelings and desires but do so respectfully and be ready to listen and discuss.
In conclusion, appropriate self-containment is an important ingredient of a healthy relationship but it’s important to avoid using distance as a way to hurt or manipulate your partner, to avoid conflict, or to get attention. Learn to balance your emotional independence with candid, caring connection.
by Alison Poulsen, PhD